Count Louis remained a loyal vassal of the French king upon the outbreak of the Hundred Years' War with England in 1337, and prohibited the maritime trade, which led to another revolt by the Dunkirk citizens. [21] The definitive metre bar, manufactured from platinum, was presented to the French legislative assembly on 22 June 1799. More than 400,000 soldiers were trapped in the pocket as the German Army closed in for the kill. Understand []. The belfry was chosen as the reference point in Dunkirk. The eighteenth-century Swedish privateers and pirates Lars Gathenhielm and his wife Ingela Hammar, are known to have sold their gains in Dunkirk. The basin was linked to the sea by a channel dug through coastal sandbanks secured by two jetties. Dunkirk’s great artificial port was largely rebuilt after 1945 and subsequently expanded to form a deepwater port and industrial zone to the west of the town. Forty thousand Allied soldiers (some who carried on fighting after the official evacuation) were captured or forced to make their own way home through a variety of routes including via neutral Spain. More-recent diversification has led to the development of pharmaceuticals and the production of cans for the beverage industry. During the German occupation, Dunkirk was largely destroyed by Allied bombing. During World War II, in May–June 1940, the British Expeditionary Force and other Allied troops, cut off by the Germans, were evacuated from Dunkirk to England by naval vessels and hundreds of civilian boats. The town was subsequently rebuilt on a new plan, with the spacious Place Jean Bart in the centre. Dunkirk Dunkirk is a town in the region of Hauts-de-France in France.The town is a historic resort, 10 km from the border with Belgium.If you're coming from the UK, it's a great place to start your journey further into the Continent, but also a great holiday… The town museum, also partly destroyed in 1940, has preserved a collection of 17th-century paintings by minor Dutch masters. My father was at Dunkirk and told me very little of what happened. It has the third-largest French harbour. Near that square is a belfry, 131 feet (40 metres) high, that was built in the 15th century and restored after severe damage by fire in 1940. Dunkirk: belfry. The French government developed the town as a fortified port. In the war against Covid, where is the government's Dunkirk spirit? Where is Dunkirk. Omissions? 5 – date: 26 December 1662", http://www.professionalmariner.com/March-2008/The-Tricolor-Kariba-Clary-Incident/, http://www.lemonde.fr/nord-pas-de-calais-picardie/nord,59/dunkerque,59183/elections/presidentielle-2002/, http://www.worldshipping.org/about-the-industry/global-trade/ports, "French city of Dunkirk tests out free transport – and it works", "Dunkerque, France Köppen Climate Classification (Weatherbase)", "Normes et records 1961–1990: Dunkerque (59) – altitude 11m", "Canicule : la France a connu hier une chaleur record au niveau national", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Dunkirk&oldid=1000681421, Port cities and towns on the French Atlantic coast, Recipients of the Distinguished Service Cross (United Kingdom), Articles containing West Flemish-language text, Articles with Czech-language sources (cs), Short description is different from Wikidata, Infobox mapframe without OSM relation ID on Wikidata, Pages using infobox settlement with image map1 but not image map, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2011, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2007, Articles with French-language sources (fr), Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz area identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 1970: Merger with Malo-les-Bains (which had been created by being detached from Dunkirk in 1881), 1980: Fusion-association with Mardyck (which became an, 1980: A large part of Petite-Synthe is detached from Dunkirk and included into, 2010: After a failed fusion-association attempt with, This page was last edited on 16 January 2021, at 05:42. [8], Dunkirk's port was used extensively during the war by British forces who brought in dock workers from, among other places, Egypt and China. Jean Bart was the most famous. 652 Squadron RAF, and No. Dunkirk Rebels 1577–1583 MS. Carte 218, fol(s). Pop. First mentioned in 1067 as Dunkerk (Flemish: “Church of the Dunes”), the town was besieged and sacked six times during the Middle Ages and was in the centre of conflicts between France, Spain, England, and Holland in the 16th and 17th centuries before it was finally recovered by France in 1662. In the late 13th century, when the Dampierre count Guy of Flanders entered into the Franco-Flemish War against his suzerain King Philippe IV of France, the citizens of Dunkirk sided with the French against their count, who at first was defeated at the 1297 Battle of Furnes, but reached de facto autonomy upon the victorious Battle of the Golden Spurs five years later and exacted vengeance. The Battle of Dunkirk (French: Bataille de Dunkerque) was fought in Dunkirk (Dunkerque), France, during the Second World War, between the Allies and Nazi Germany.As the Allies were losing the Battle of France on the Western Front, the Battle of Dunkirk was the defence and evacuation to Britain of British and other Allied forces in Europe from 26 May to 4 June 1940. It came under French rule when King Charles II of England sold it to France for £320,000[6] on 17 October 1662. France 1873–1940 The Gare de Dunkerque railway station offers connections to Gare de Calais-Ville, Gare de Lille Flandres, Arras and Paris, and several regional destinations in France. Dunkirk has co-operation agreements with: Dunkirk has an oceanic climate, with cool winters and warm summers. [12], In October 1917, to mark the gallant behaviour of its inhabitants during the war, the City of Dunkirk was awarded the Croix de Guerre and, in 1919, the Legion of Honour and the British Distinguished Service Cross. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Christopher Nolan’s Dunkirk is likely to be the most widely seen or read depiction of history released in 2017. The place of Dunkirk is located in Saskatchewan (Canada) There are 155 places (city, towns, hamlets …) within a radius of 100 kilometers / 62 miles from the center of Dunkirk (SK), the nearest place in the area is Bishopric, Saskatchewan. Dunkirk is a small town in the northernmost tip of France. Spanish Netherlands 1583–1646 The principal exports are refined oil products and cereals. For the World War II evacuation, see, Subprefecture and commune in Hauts-de-France, France, (Description of contents of carte papers), Levine, Joshua (2017) Dunkirk, Harper Collins, New York, List of twin towns and sister cities in France, "Répertoire national des élus: les maires", "Correspondence and papers of the first Duke of Ormonde, chiefly on Irish and English public affairs: ref. The Treaty of Paris (1763) between France and Great Britain ending the Seven Years' War, included a clause restricting French rights to fortify Dunkirk, to allay British fears of it being used as an invasion base to cross the English Channel. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Several weeks after the scheme had been introduced, the city's mayor, Patrice Vergriete, reported that there had been 50% increase in passenger numbers on some routes, and up to 85% on others. [9][13] These decorations now appear in the city's coat of arms.[14]. Wenn man sich den Film »Dunkirk« ansieht, wird man sehr schnell merken, dass er sich merklich von den üblichen Kriegsfilmen abhebt. [22] As of August 2019, approximately 5% of 2000 people surveyed had used the free bus service to completely replace their cars.[23]. Nevertheless, a collapse was prevented and evacuate by sea across the English Channel, codenamed Operation Dynamo. Fighting in Belgium and France, the BEF and a portion of the French Army became outflanked by the Germans and retreated to the area around the port of Dunkirk. Latitude and longitude coordinates are: 51.050030, 2.397766. Dunkirk is located at 40°22′28″N 85°12′35″W / 40.37444°N 85.20972°W / 40.37444; -85.20972 (40.37, -85.21), primarily within Jay County but with a section neighboring Blackford County. England 1659–1662 Assessing the situation, von Rundstedt advocated holding his armor west and south of Dunkirk, as the marshy terrain was unsuitable for armored operations and many units were worn down from advance west. Dunkirk has a ferry with the firm DFDS with regular services each day to England. Dunkirk, French Dunkerque, town and seaport, Nord département, Hauts-de-France région, northern France. Spanish Netherlands 1652–1658 Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Dunkirk contains intense and realistic sequences of war violence with many casualties by shooting, drowning, burning, and explosion shown. [citation needed] Count Philip I (1157–1191) brought further large tracts of marshland under cultivation, laid out the first plans to build a Canal from Dunkirk to Bergues and vested the Dunkirkers with market rights. [7], During the reign of King Louis XIV, a large number of commerce raiders and pirates once again made their base at Dunkirk. Dunkirk Tourism: Tripadvisor has 26,651 reviews of Dunkirk Hotels, Attractions, and Restaurants making it your best Dunkirk resource. The town's existing defences were adapted to create ten bastions. The simple reason is that it was from Dunkirk and its 10-mile stretch of beaches that Britian evacuated a plethora of soldiers after the collapse of Belgium and eventually the collapse of France. Sightings were made of signal lights at Dover Castle from the Dunkirk Belfry, and vice versa. The population of Dunkirk is around 12 thousand. For the people in western Europe, World War Two was about to … More than 40,000 vehicles as well as massive amounts of other military equipment and supplies were left behind, their value being regarded as less than that of trained fighting men. The surrounding wetlands were drained and cultivated by the monks of nearby Bergues Abbey. The port was expanded in the 1670s by the construction of a basin that could hold up to thirty warships with a double lock system to maintain water levels at low tide. 'Dunkirk' heavily features the breakwater called the mole, where soldiers were exposed targets while waiting for a boat ride home. 25 Best Shows of the Year. Many wounded who were unable to walk were abandoned. However, the archduke defeated the French troops in 1479 at the Battle of Guinegate. France 1646–1652 During the Second World War, in the May 1940 Battle of France, the British Expeditionary Force (BEF), while aiding the French and Belgian armies, were forced to retreat in the face of the overpowering German Panzer attacks. It was originally the western tower of the Gothic church of Saint Éloi (damaged in World Wars I and II) but was separated from it by a street in the 18th century. All dies kommt in »Dunkirk« nur sehr fein dosiert vor. Traveling to Army Group A's headquarters at Charleville on May 24, Hitler urged its commander, General Gerd von Rundstedt, to press the attack. Dunkirk is located in the county of Staffordshire, West Midlands, two miles south-west of the town of Kidsgrove, five miles north-west of the major town of Newcastle-under-Lyme, 116 miles north of Cardiff, and 141 miles north-west of London. Until the middle of the 20th century, French Flemish (the local variety of the Dutch language) was commonly spoken in Dunkirk; it has largely been forsaken, although it can still be heard. The population was 2,363 at the 2000 census. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. France 1662–1870 The British Expeditionary Force being surrounded by invading Germans at Dunkirk and evacuated from France by a motley rescue fleet of military ships and private boats; from. On a regular basis, heavy shells weighing approximately 750 kg were fired from Koekelare, about 45–50 km away. Dunkirk (UK: /dʌnˈkɜːrk/, US: /ˈdʌnkɜːrk/;[3][4] French: Dunkerque [dœ̃kɛʁk] (listen); French Flemish: Duunkerke; Dutch: Duinkerke(n) [ˈdœynkɛrkə(n)] (listen)) is a commune in Nord, a French department in northern France. It took over 900 vessels to evacuate the BEF, with two-thirds of those rescued embarking via the harbour, and over 100,000 taken off the beaches. Forced by the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713 to demolish the fortifications, France was not allowed to rebuild them until the late 18th century. This work was completed by 1678. Dunkirk’s service sector is still underdeveloped, although the port has stimulated the growth of transport-related activities, and the town is home to a branch of the Opal Coast University, located in the former docklands. Dunkirk lies just south-east of the Cheshire border. The commune has grown substantially by absorbing several neighbouring communes: Dunkirk has the third-largest harbour in France, after those of Le Havre and Marseille. Dunkirk was a critical turning point in World War II.German dictator Adolf Hitler’s blitzkrieg strategy depended on maintaining concentrated forward momentum in its invasion of France and Belgium; Germany had overrun the region by May 1940. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. The population of the commune at the 2016 census was 91,412. As the Wehrmacht swept through western Europe in the spring of 1940, using Blitzkrieg, both the French and British armies could not stop the onslaught. When Mary died in 1482, Maximilian retained Flanders according to the terms of the 1482 Treaty of Arras. He did take me to see the original film with Sir John Mills which he thought was a fairly close description of events and also years later took me and my brother to Dunkirk where we walked his battlefield. But a couple of days will be amply justified – even a long weekend. The writer Robert W. Service, then a war correspondent for the Toronto Star, was mistakenly arrested as a spy and narrowly avoided being executed out of hand. Considered one the wealthiest places to live inside the Washington, … The jetties were defended a few years later by the construction of five forts, Château d'Espérance, Château Vert, Grand Risban, Château Gaillard, and Fort de Revers. Alternative Title: Dunkerque. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/place/Dunkirk-France, Dunkirk - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). The railway line from Dunkirk to De Panne and Adinkerke, Belgium, is closed and has been dismantled in places. The belfry, originally the western tower of the Church of Saint-Eloi, at Dunkirk, France. It lies 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) from the Belgian border. Upon the extinction of the Counts of Flanders with the death of Louis II in 1384, Flanders was acquired by the Burgundian, Duke Philip the Bold. The base closed shortly after the Armistice of 11 November 1918. After the count had been killed in the 1346 Battle of Crécy, his son and successor Count Louis II of Flanders (1346–1384) signed a truce with the English; the trade again flourished and the port was significantly enlarged. The population of the commune at the 2016 census was 91,412. German occupation 1940–1945. Dunkirk is a city in Blackford and Jay counties in the U.S. state of Indiana. The name of Dunkirk derives from West Flemish dun(e) 'dune' or 'dun' and kerke 'church',[citation needed] which together means 'church in the dunes'.[5]. The city along with Fort-Mardyck was awarded to England in the peace the following year as agreed in the Franco-English alliance against Spain. 338,226 men (including 123,000 French soldiers) were evacuated – the miracle of Dunkirk, as Churchill called it. About AD 960, Count Baldwin III had a town wall erected in order to protect the settlement against Viking raids. It has the third-largest French harbour. Dunkirk, and the evacuation associated with the troops trapped on Dunkirk, was called a “miracle” by Winston Churchill. Habsburg Netherlands 1482–1556 Dunkirk is a small town on the coast of France that was the scene of a massive military campaign during World War II. This article is about the French commune. For years, it was assumed that Adolf Hitler ordered the German Army to suspend the attack, favouring bombardment by the Luftwaffe. Louis XIV had important fortifications built there to make it a safe base for Jean Bart and other famous French corsairs who pillaged foreign ships. Dunkirk is located in Cheshire West and Chester, Cheshire in England, UK. The artillery siege of Dunkirk was directed on the final day of the war by pilots from No. As a strategic point, Dunkirk has always been exposed to political greed, by Duke Robert I of Bar in 1395, by Louis de Luxembourg in 1435 and finally by the Austrian archduke Maximilian I of Habsburg, who in 1477 married Mary of Burgundy, sole heiress of late Duke Charles the Bold. However, in the course of the Western Schism from 1378, English supporters of Pope Urban VI (the Roman claimant) disembarked at Dunkirk, captured the city and flooded the surrounding estates. Unexpectedly, the German Panzer attack halted for several days at a critical juncture. [10] The bombardment killed nearly 600 people and wounded another 1,100, both civilian and military, while 400 buildings were destroyed and 2,400 damaged. [9], In January, 1916, a spy scare took place in Dunkirk. This clause was overturned in the subsequent Treaty of Versailles of 1783. In exchange for another lockdown, we need to see greater action, innovation and a timetable for rolling out the vaccine [16] This lull gave the British and French a few days to fortify their defences. Check if it is available to stream online via "Where to Watch". Dunkirk was the most easterly cross-channel measuring point for the Anglo-French Survey (1784–1790), which used trigonometry to calculate the precise distance between the Paris Observatory and the Royal Greenwich Observatory. Imports dominate and include iron ore, coking coal, and crude and refined oil. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. The name Dunkirk derives from West Flemish "dun" (Dune) and "Kerke" (Church). [14], The city also has its own flag, made up of six horizontal stripes of alternate white and azure blue.[14]. Answer (1 of 3): Dunkirk is a seaport that is located between the Belgian coast and Calais. Dunkirk's position in the North Sea and its proximity to the rich region of Flanders meant the town inevitably changed hands several times: in 1659 it belonged to the English; in 1662 it was bought back by Louis XIV. Dunkirk is a beautiful old small city in the northernmost part of France, located on the shores of the La Manche Strain, about 7 miles west of the border between France and Belgium. As part of the transition towards offering free bus services, the city's fleet was expanded from 100 to 140 buses, including new vehicles which run on natural gas. The name Dunkirka was first mentioned in a tithe privilege of 27 May 1067, issued by Count Baldwin V of Flanders. What county is Dunkirk in? [11] On 1 January 1918, the United States Navy established a naval air station to operate seaplanes. The cuisine of Dunkirk closely resembles Flemish cuisine; perhaps one of the best known dishes is coq à la bière – chicken in a creamy beer sauce. The Tour du Leughenaer (Tour du Leughenaer [fr]) (the Liar's Tower), The remains of the East Mole of Dunkirk harbour, pictured in 2009. The area is very fast-growing, with many large estate homes. 665 Squadron RCAF. The town was by-passed masking the German garrison with Allied troops, notably 1st Czechoslovak Armoured Brigade. A fishing village arose late in the tenth century, in the originally flooded coastal area of the English Channel south of the Western Scheldt, when the area was held by the Counts of Flanders, vassals of the French Crown. However, according to the Official War Diary of Army Group A, its commander, Generaloberst Gerd von Rundstedt, ordered the halt to allow maintenance on his tanks, half of which were out of service, and to protect his flanks which were exposed and, he thought, vulnerable. 89,160. Corrections? However, German forces refused to relinquish their control of the city, which had been converted into a fortress. The city's population, which had been 39,000 in 1914, reduced to fewer than 15,000 in July 1916 and 7,000 in the autumn of 1917. CDT Nord. Updates? Spanish Netherlands 1556–1577 Dunkirk, along with the rest of Flanders, was incorporated into the Habsburg Netherlands and upon the 1581 secession of the Seven United Netherlands, remained part of the Southern Netherlands, which were held by Habsburg Spain (Spanish Netherlands) as Imperial fiefs. Dunkirk, French Dunkerque, town and seaport, Nord département, Hauts-de-France région, northern France. 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